In fact the Hollywood approach to AI is more nuanced than this. If you think of your 10 favourite films that prominently feature AI (or 20, if you have that many!) you will probably find that, in most of them, the AI is not implacably hostile towards humans, although it may become a threat through malfunction or necessity. Even in The Matrix (1999) there are hints that it was humans who started the war, and at the end of the series it is not too hard for Neo to persuade the machines' controlling mind that they should try to rub along better. Hal, the rogue AI in Kubrick's 2001 (1968), only turns against the astronauts in a tortured attempt to follow the conflicting instructions it has received from Mission Control. In Wall-E (2008), Blade Runner (1982) and Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), there are both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ AIs, and in I, Robot (2004) and Ex Machina (2015), the AIs turn against humans purely for reasons of self-defence and only after experiencing pretty bad treatment by humans.
A major event in the evolution of OCT was the use of light wavelengths instead of time delay to determine the spatial location of reflected light. Through the use of Fourier transformation, this took the technology from the original method of TD-OCT to the development of SD-OCT. The original OCT method, known as TD-OCT, encoded the location of each reflection in the time information relating the position of a moving reference mirror to the location of the ,45 SD-OCT, instead, acquires all information in a single axial scan through the tissue simultaneously by evaluating the frequency spectrum of the interference between the reflected light and a stationary reference mirror. This method enables much faster acquisition times, resulting in a large increase in the amount of data that can be obtained during a given scan duration using SD-OCT. A comprehensive review of SD OCT by Joel Schuman is available(10)
Since telegraph days, people have been refining techniques for squeezing more connections onto a single wire. Early multiplexers for computers let up to 15 terminals share the same line, by assigning each of them a particular frequency (Frequency Division Multiplexing). In 1968, a new generation of time-division multiplexers gives each user a small slice of time in turn, radically expanding the number of computer terminals that can share the same line – from 15 to 45. This dramatically lowers costs for businesses, and the multiplexer market becomes highly competitive. Advances in acoustic couplers – the devices that let you connect your terminal to a regular telephone handset – also help more and more people go online.