The word for ‘soul’ in Aristotle is psuche. In Latin it is translated as anima. For many readers, it is the use of the Latin term (particularly as it was used by Christian, Moslem, and Jewish theologians) that forms the basis of our modern understanding of the word. Under the theological tradition, the soul meant an immaterial, detached ruling power within a human. It was immortal and went to God after death. This tradition gave rise to Descartes’ metaphysical dualism: the doctrine that there are two sorts of things that exist (soul and matter), and that soul ruled matter.
At least 18 units in advanced biology courses (numbered 300 or above) are required. These 18 units may not include Biol 303A, Biol 307A, Biol 374, Biol 387, Biol 388, Biol 393, Biol 429, Biol 487, Biol 488; cross-listed courses originating in other departments (except Biol 360 , Biol 4580 , Biol 4810 and Biol 4820, which count as biology major credit despite external origins); courses in University College; or more than 3 units of history-of-science courses. Majors are required to take at least one course from each of these three areas: