As early as 1933 Dr. Dewey voiced his fear of what the future might bring if Hitler remained unchecked in Germany. Just before he sailed for Europe that year he predicted that Hitler would be headed for war as soon as he felt strong enough. A year later he asserted that Hitler and Hitlerism were "by all odds the greatest threat to world peace today." In 1936 he was one of a group of eighteen philosophers who refused to participate in the celebration of a philosophical institution in Berlin. At that time he also was wary of Japan, warning that a secret agreement existed between Japan and Germany.